The standard Ada run-time library provides the package Ada.Exceptions. This package provides a number of services to help analyze exceptions.
Each exception is associated with a (short) message that can be set by the code that raises the exception. In more recent versions of Ada, these messages can be set very simply, as in the following code:
Ada.Exceptions.Raise_Exception -- Ada 95 (Constraint_Error'Identity, "some message"); raise Constraint_Error with "some message"; -- Ada 2005
The new syntax is now very convenient, and developers should be encouraged to provide as much information as possible along with the exception. However, the length of the message is limited to 200 characters by default in GNAT, and messages longer than that will be truncated.
Exceptions also embed information set by the run-time itself that can be retrieved by calling the Exception_Information function. In the case of GNAT, this information might include the source location where the exception was raised and a nonsymbolic traceback. The function Exception_Information also displays the Exception_Message. Here is a typical exception handler that catches all unexpected exceptions in the application:
pragma Ada_05; with Ada.Exceptions; with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO; procedure Main is procedure Nested is begin raise Constraint_Error with "some message"; end Nested; begin Nested; exception when E : others => Put_Line (Ada.Exceptions.Exception_Information (E)); end Main;
Let's now compile this application with no special command-line option.
> gnatmake main.adb > ./main Exception name: CONSTRAINT_ERROR Message: some message
That's not very informative. To get more information, we need to rerun the program in the debugger. To make the session more interesting though, we should add debug information in the executable, which means using the -g switch in the gnatmake command.
The session would look like the following (omitting some of the output from the debugger):
> rm *.o # Cleanup previous compilation > gnatmake -g main.adb > gdb ./main (gdb) catch exception (gdb) run Catchpoint 1, CONSTRAINT_ERROR at 0x0000000000402860 in main.nested () at main.adb:8 8 raise Constraint_Error with "some message"; (gdb) bt #0 <__gnat_debug_raise_exception> (e=0x62ec40 <constraint_error>) at s-excdeb.adb:43 #1 0x000000000040426f in ada.exceptions.complete_occurrence (x=x@entry=0x637050) at a-except.adb:934 #2 0x000000000040427b in ada.exceptions.complete_and_propagate_occurrence ( x=x@entry=0x637050) at a-except.adb:943 #3 0x00000000004042d0 in <__gnat_raise_exception> (e=0x62ec40 <constraint_error>, message=...) at a-except.adb:982 #4 0x0000000000402860 in main.nested () #5 0x000000000040287c in main ()
And we now know exactly where the exception was raised.
But in fact, we could have this information directly when running the application.
For this, we need to bind the application with the switch -E, which tells the binder to store exception tracebacks in exception occurrences. Let's recompile and rerun the application.
> rm *.o # Cleanup previous compilation > gnatmake -g main.adb -bargs -E > ./main Exception name: CONSTRAINT_ERROR Message: some message Call stack traceback locations: 0x10b7e24d1 0x10b7e24ee 0x10b7e2472
The traceback, as is, is not very useful. We now need to use another tool that is bundled with GNAT, called addr2line. Here is an example of its use:
> addr2line -e main --functions --demangle 0x10b7e24d1 0x10b7e24ee 0x10b7e2472 /path/main.adb:8 _ada_main /path/main.adb:12 main /path/b~main.adb:240
This time we do have a symbolic backtrace, which shows information similar to what we got in the debugger.
For users on OSX machines, addr2line does not exist. On these machines, however, an equivalent solution exists. You need to link your application with an additional switch, and then use the tool atos, as in:
> rm *.o > gnatmake -g main.adb -bargs -E -largs -Wl,-no_pie > ./main Exception name: CONSTRAINT_ERROR Message: some message Call stack traceback locations: 0x1000014d1 0x1000014ee 0x100001472 > atos -o main 0x1000014d1 0x1000014ee 0x100001472 main__nested.2550 (in main) (main.adb:8) _ada_main (in main) (main.adb:12) main (in main) + 90
We will now discuss a relatively new switch of the compiler, namely -gnateE. When used, this switch will generate extra information in exception messages.
Let's amend our test program to:
pragma Ada_05; with Ada.Exceptions; with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO; procedure Main is procedure Nested (Index : Integer) is type T_Array is array (1 .. 2) of Integer; T : constant T_Array := (10, 20); begin Put_Line (T (Index)'Img); end Nested; begin Nested (3); exception when E : others => Put_Line (Ada.Exceptions.Exception_Information (E)); end Main;
We compile it with the additional switch and then run it:
> gnatmake -g main.adb -gnateE -bargs -E -g -largs > ./main Exception name: CONSTRAINT_ERROR Message: main.adb:10:18 index check failed index 3 not in 1..2 Call stack traceback locations: 0x100001429 0x1000014c7 0x1000013c2
The exception information (traceback) is the same as before, but this time the exception message is set automatically by the compiler. So we know we got a Constraint_Error because an incorrect index was used at the named source location (main.adb line 10). But the significant addition is the second line of the message, which indicates exactly the cause of the error. Here, we wanted to get the element at index 3, in an array whose range of valid indexes is from 1 to 2.
No need for a debugger in this case.
The column information on the first line of the exception message is also very useful when dealing with null pointers. For instance, a line such as:
A := Rec1.Rec2.Rec3.Rec4.all;
where each of the Rec is itself a pointer, might raise Constraint_Error with a message "access check failed". This indicates for sure that one of the pointers is null, and by using the column information it is generally easy to find out which one it is.